quango n : QUAsi Non-Governmental Organization; an organization that is financed by the government yet acts independently of the government [syn: quasi-NGO]
EtymologyThe initial letters (the first two letters for the first word) of "quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization"
- Rhymes: -æŋɡəʊ
The acronyms Qango and Quango, variously spelt out as QUAsi Non-Governmental Organisation, QUasi-Autonomous Non-Governmental Organisation, and QUasi-Autonomous National Government Organisation, have been used, notably in the United Kingdom, but also in Australia, Ireland and other countries, to describe a range of organisations to which governments have devolved power. Confusion over the meaning of the acronym has been reflected in confusion over the use of the term, and may have contributed to its decline in use. The term Quango carries with it an implication of poor management and lack of accountability.
History of the term
The term originated as a humorous shortening of Quasi-NGO, that is, an ostensibly non-governmental organisation which performs governmental functions, often with government funding or other support. There are many such organisations. In Australia and other countries, the Red Cross provides blood bank services, with government support and backing of various kinds. Examples in the United Kingdom include bodies engaged in self-regulation of various sectors, such as the Press Council and the Law Society. An essential feature of a Quango, in the original definition, was that it should not be formally part of the public sector.
However, the appeal of the term was such that it was extended to a wide range of governmental organisations, such as executive agencies (from 1988) providing health, education and other services. Particularly in the United Kingdom, this extension took place in a polemical context, being associated with claims that the proliferation of such authorities was undesirable and should be reversed http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig/watson4.html. In the course of this process, attempts were made to derive the acronym from longer terms which did not carry the presumption that the organisation in question was non-governmental. The most popular was Quasi-Autonomous National Government Organisation, which, however, carries with it the false presumption that state and local governments cannot make use of Quangos, so leading to the parallel acronym, Qualgo.
Since most of such bodies are in fact part of the government in terms of funding, appointment and function, the acronym does not work as a description - these are generally not non-governmental organisations with less autonomy than others. As a result, it has largely been abandoned in UK official usage. The less controversial term non-departmental public body (NDPB) is now used to describe many of the organisations with devolved governmental roles, in an attempt to avoid the pejorative associations of the term Quango.
The UK government's definition of a non-departmental public body or quango in 1997 was:
- "A body which has a role in the processes of national government, but is not a government department or part of one, and which accordingly operates to a greater or lesser extent at arm's length from Ministers." http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/caboff/bodies97/intro-1.htm
The use of executive agency with service delivery functions has developed alongside NDPBs in the UK. These agencies do not usually have a legal identity separate from that of their parent department; and, unless they have trading fund status, their accounts form part of the accounts of the parent department. The NHS also has bodies called Special Health Authorities which are technically neither NDPBs nor executive agencies, and the Department of Health collectively describes all three types as "arm's length bodies".
Network Rail, the organisation responsible for the UK's railway infrastructure is a classical quango, subject to dispute over whether it is, as its formal structure suggests a non-governmental private company, or a state-owned enterprise.
Republic of IrelandThe Republic of Ireland has more than 800 quangos — 482 at national level and 350 at local level. they have a combined annual budget of €13 billion and 5,784 quango members.
- Cabinet Office - Agencies and Public Bodies
- Economic Research Council - online database of all UK quangos 1998-2006
- The Sunday Times Article on Quangos - Sept 2006
- Richard Allen and Dimitar Radev, "Managing and Controlling Extrabudgetary Funds", OECD Journal of Budgeting, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2006
- Carsten Greve, Matthew Flinders, Sandra Van Thiel (1999), Quangos—What's in a Name? Defining Quangos from a Comparative Perspective, Governance 12 (2), 129–146 doi:10.1111/0952-1895.951999095
- Definition of 'non-departmental public body' as synonymous with 'QUANGO'
- UK government site about the process of making public appointments
quango in German: Quago
quango in Dutch: Zelfstandig bestuursorgaan
quango in Chinese: 半官方機構